Martin Luther King, Jr. Each year on the third Monday of January, America honors the birth, life and dream of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. As Martin Luther King Jr. Day, also known as MLK Day, is a Federal holiday, not only will schools and libraries be closed, most federal and state offices will be closed. [223] In his 1967 Massey Lecture, King stated: The importance of the hippies is not in their unconventional behavior, but in the fact that hundreds of thousands of young people, in turning to a flight from reality, are expressing a profoundly discrediting view on the society they emerge from. Inspired by King's vision, it undertakes a range of activities across the UK as it seeks to "build cultures of peace. They both have weaknesses ... And I'm not inextricably bound to either party. [378], FBI director J. Edgar Hoover personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader. [307] However, his youngest child, Bernice King, has said publicly that he would have been opposed to gay marriage.[308]. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, and, in 1964, mailed King a threatening anonymous letter, which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide.[3]. [114][115], The SCLC put into practice the tactics of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the methods and places in which protests were carried out. Those tests did not implicate Ray's specific rifle. [356] Tribal leaders, upon hearing of King's desegregation campaign in Birmingham, Alabama, contacted him for assistance. And all of the other shallow things will not matter. [235], On March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of the black sanitary public works employees, who were represented by AFSCME Local 1733. What is lacking is not sufficient knowledge of the solution but universal consciousness of the gravity of the problem and education of the billions who are its victims ...[372][373][third-party source needed], Actress Nichelle Nichols planned to leave the science-fiction television series Star Trek in 1967 after its first season, wanting to return to musical theater. [47] But, he relied on his sister, Christine, to help him with his spelling, while King assisted her with math. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both.[222]. This page was last changed on 7 February 2021, at 02:57. We believed that we could fight for a policy of self-determination that was consistent with U.S. law and that we could govern our own affairs, define our own ways and continue to survive in this society. [131] Though the Albany effort proved a key lesson in tactics for King and the national civil rights movement,[132] the national media was highly critical of King's role in the defeat, and the SCLC's lack of results contributed to a growing gulf between the organization and the more radical SNCC. King's father changed both of their names from Michael to Martin Luther in honor of the protestant reformer. He was sentenced to a 99-year prison term. [84] While pursuing doctoral studies, King worked as an assistant minister at Boston's historic Twelfth Baptist Church with Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. was an American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the Civil Rights Movement. [220], King's stance on Vietnam encouraged Allard K. Lowenstein, William Sloane Coffin and Norman Thomas, with the support of anti-war Democrats, to attempt to persuade King to run against President Johnson in the 1968 United States presidential election. [253] But his efforts didn't worked out: "I'm not getting through," Johnson told his aides. This was my first calling and it still remains my greatest commitment. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. Lew said that while Lincoln would remain on the front of the $5 bill, the reverse would be redesigned to depict various historical events that had occurred at the Lincoln Memorial. "[220] King quoted a United States official who said that from Vietnam to Latin America, the country was "on the wrong side of a world revolution. King argues that the crisis of racism is too urgent, and the current system too entrenched: "We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. [194], A 1967 CIA document declassified in 2017 downplayed King's role in the "black militant situation" in Chicago, with a source stating that King "sought at least constructive, positive projects. There were several dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities, who sometimes turned violent. [356] At that time the remaining Creek in Alabama were trying to completely desegregate schools in their area. Rioting seemed very possible. I won't have the fine and luxurious things of life to leave behind. "They're all holing up like generals in a dugout getting ready to watch a war. On August 28,1963 the reverend Martin Luther King Jr. led a great peaceful march for civil rights to Washington D.C.:there were about 250,000 people.It was the most famous “March for Freedom”.There was no violent action,all were praying and singing and listeningto their leader. For other uses, see, "I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Councilor or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to "order" than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: "I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action"; who paternalistically believes he can set the timetable for another man's freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a "more convenient season. [212][213] King began to speak of the need for fundamental changes in the political and economic life of the nation, and more frequently expressed his opposition to the war and his desire to see a redistribution of resources to correct racial and economic injustice. [270], Ray's lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that John F. Kennedy's assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists. The tapes that could confirm or refute the allegation are scheduled to be declassified in 2027. [128], King returned in July 1962 and was given the option of forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine (equivalent to $1,500 in 2019); he chose jail. ", The black revolution is much more than a struggle for the rights of Negroes. [167][168] During June, the movement marched nightly through the city, "often facing counter demonstrations by the Klan, and provoking violence that garnered national media attention." [340] King frequently referred to Jesus' Sermon on the Mount as central for his work. [356] John Echohawk a member of the Pawnee tribe and the executive director and one of the founders of the Native American Rights Fund stated: Inspired by Dr. King, who was advancing the civil rights agenda of equality under the laws of this country, we thought that we could also use the laws to advance our Indianship, to live as tribes in our territories governed by our own laws under the principles of tribal sovereignty that had been with us ever since 1831. [256] The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers. [101] King was arrested during this campaign, which concluded with a United States District Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses. [345], Even after renouncing his personal use of guns, King had a complex relationship with the phenomenon of self-defense in the movement. Moreover, we elevated that tragic experience into a noble crusade. Izola Curry—a mentally ill black woman who thought that King was conspiring against her with communists—stabbed him in the chest with a letter opener, which nearly impinged on the aorta. "[402], In his 1986 book Bearing the Cross, David Garrow wrote about a number of extramarital affairs, including one woman King saw almost daily. [355] In fact, the Native American Rights Fund (NARF) was patterned after the NAACP's Legal Defense and Education Fund. [356][360] Native Americans were also active participants in the Poor People's Campaign in 1968.[357]. "[210][211], The "Beyond Vietnam" speech reflected King's evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center, with which he was affiliated. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation. [30][32] Soon afterwards, the parents of the white boy stopped allowing King to play with their son, stating to him "we are white, and you are colored". "[203], King opposed the Vietnam War because it took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare at home. "[422][425] In his acceptance remarks, King said, "Freedom is one thing. "[334], Another influence for King's nonviolent method was Henry David Thoreau's essay On Civil Disobedience and its theme of refusing to cooperate with an evil system. "[396], CIA files declassified in 2017 revealed that the agency was investigating possible links between King and Communism after a Washington Post article dated November 4, 1964 claimed he was invited to the Soviet Union and that Ralph Abernathy, as spokesman for King, refused to comment on the source of the invitation. CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (, Text "author 2P. Criticism of King's plan was subdued in the wake of his death, and the SCLC received an unprecedented wave of donations for the purpose of carrying it out. [157] More than a quarter of a million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around the reflecting pool. [255] James Farmer Jr. and other civil rights leaders also called for non-violent action, while the more militant Stokely Carmichael called for a more forceful response. In April 1963, the SCLC began a campaign against racial segregation and economic injustice in Birmingham, Alabama. [265] Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with King's murder. It was the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King and Bevel's nonviolence strategy. You have just 34 days in which to do (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significant [sic]). You know what it is. Unlike plagues of the dark ages or contemporary diseases we do not yet understand, the modern plague of overpopulation is soluble by means we have discovered and with resources we possess. [288], King's legacy includes influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and civil rights movement in South Africa. [277][278]  1 Amos 5:24 (rendered precisely in The American Standard Version of the Holy Bible) 2 Isaiah 40:4-5 (King James Version of the Holy Bible). Observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, it is called Martin Luther King Jr. Day. Nixon's opponent John F. Kennedy called the governor (a Democrat) directly, enlisted his brother Robert to exert more pressure on state authorities, and also, at the personal request of Sargent Shriver, made a phone call to King's wife to express his sympathy and offer his help. They said that it came from behind thick shrubbery near the boarding house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the boarding house window. The pressure from Kennedy and others proved effective, and King was released two days later. "[363] King did praise Democratic Senator Paul Douglas of Illinois as being the "greatest of all senators" because of his fierce advocacy for civil rights causes over the years.[364]. [130], After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate. America is a hypocritical nation and [we] must put [our] own house in order. [240] In the prophetic peroration of the last speech of his life, in reference to the bomb threat, King said the following: And then I got to Memphis. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. [55][56][57][58] He further grew a liking for flirting with girls and dancing. When King first visited on December 15, 1961, he "had planned to stay a day or so and return home after giving counsel. [161] The March, and especially King's speech, helped put civil rights at the top of the agenda of reformers in the United States and facilitated passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. There are three urgent and indeed great problems that we face not only in the United States of America but all over the world today. "I Have a Dream" came to be regarded as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory. That is the problem of racism, the problem of poverty and the problem of war. Martin Luther King was an important civil rights activist. Hester was an old friend of King's father, and was an important influence on King. He was mostly influenced by the Indian freedom fighter Mahatma Gandhi who is known to be the flag … And I've looked over. King's mother named him Michael, which was entered onto the birth certificate by the attending physician. [267][272] They admitted that Ray was a thief and burglar, but claimed that he had no record of committing violent crimes with a weapon. "[218] King had read Marx while at Morehouse, but while he rejected "traditional capitalism", he rejected communism because of its "materialistic interpretation of history" that denied religion, its "ethical relativism", and its "political totalitarianism. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. [409], The letter was accompanied by a tape recording—excerpted from FBI wiretaps—of several of King's extramarital liaisons. Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. He contrasted this with the situation faced by poor Americans, claiming that Congress had merely provided "poverty funds with miserliness. Religious education, ministry, marriage and family, Atlanta Sit-Ins, Prison Sentence, and the 1960 Elections, Selma voting rights movement and "Bloody Sunday", 1965, Activism and involvement with Native Americans, Police observation during the assassination. While studying at Boston University, he asked a friend from Atlanta named Mary Powell, who was a student at the New England Conservatory of Music, if she knew any nice Southern girls. They went out for dates in his green Chevy. [50][49] King has stated, he found himself unable to identify with the emotional displays and gestures from congregants frequent at his church, and doubted if he would ever attain personal satisfaction from religion. Martin Luther King Jr.•Martin Luther King Jr is one ofthe most important activists inAfrican-American history.•He was the leader of the CivilRights Movement, anorganization that wanted toend racial discriminationagainst Blacks.•King and his movement arerespected for achieving theirpolitical … Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in cities and states throughout the United States beginning in 1971; the holiday was enacted at the federal level by legislation signed by President Ronald Reagan in 1986. The movement mobilized thousands of citizens for a broad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city and attracted nationwide attention. [386], In 1977, Judge John Lewis Smith Jr. ordered all known copies of the recorded audiotapes and written transcripts resulting from the FBI's electronic surveillance of King between 1963 and 1968 to be held in the National Archives and sealed from public access until 2027. Garrow is talking about a recently added summary of a transcript of a 1964 recording from the Willard Hotel that others, including Mrs. King, have said they did not hear Martin's voice on it. [281][282], In 2002, The New York Times reported that a church minister, Rev. [374] She changed her mind after talking to King[375] who was a fan of the show. [434] In 1963, he was named Time Person of the Year, and in 2000, he was voted sixth in an online "Person of the Century" poll by the same magazine. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day.[236][237][238]. Even before there were large numbers of Negroes on our shores, the scar of racial hatred had already disfigured colonial society. [19][44] King struggled with this, and could not fully believe that his parents knew where his grandmother had gone. [17][18] Until Jennie's death in 1941, they lived together on the second floor of her parent's two-story Victorian house, where King was born. King quoted from Henry George and George's book, Progress and Poverty, particularly in support of a guaranteed basic income. [154][155][156] Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success. King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a "Day of Penance" to promote nonviolence and maintain the moral high ground. In 1964 he received the Nobel Peace Prize. ", "Marie Foster, Early Fighter For Voting Rights, Dies at 85", "Views on Black Militant Situation in Chicago", "The 11 Most Anti-Capitalist Quotes from Martin Luther King Jr", "The Rev. [273] In a 2008 interview with CNN, Jerry Ray, the younger brother of James Earl Ray, claimed that James was smart and was sometimes able to get away with armed robbery. [185][187][188], King later stated and Abernathy wrote that the movement received a worse reception in Chicago than in the South. "[395] As context, the civil rights movement in 1950s and '60s arose from activism within the black community dating back to before World War I. [224][225], Thích Nhất Hạnh was an influential Vietnamese Buddhist who taught at Princeton University and Columbia University. All other methods have failed. King's widow Coretta publicly said that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights. Martin Luther King, Jr. (February 4, 1968). "[388], For years, Hoover had been suspicious of potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights. From the sixteenth century forward, blood flowed in battles over racial supremacy. When King was growing up, black people in the southern part of the U.S. did not have equal rights. [359] He later returned to Old Pueblo in March 1962 where he preached again to a Native American congregation, and then went on to give another speech at the University of Arizona. "[292][293][294], In the United Kingdom, The Northumbria and Newcastle Universities Martin Luther King Peace Committee[295] exists to honor King's legacy, as represented by his final visit to the UK to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University in 1967. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity. Dr. King is widely regarded as America’s pre-eminent advocate of nonviolence and one of the … Oates (1993) and Schuman (2014) state King passed the exam in the spring of 1944 before graduating from the eleventh grade, then being enrolled in Morehouse that fall.